Many diseases are ravaging the human world today, one of which is cancer. This is an illness that affects different parts of the body and can almost leave the patient helpless. Scientists are working round the clock to find lasting cures and prevention to this disease and while there has been some positive feedback there are also some negative ones. For example, there is the controlled amino cancer treatment and prevention currently being investigated and that is what this article is going to be about. Amino acids are vital nutrients for cell types survival and reprogrammed cancer metabolism. Reviews are outlining the diverse amino acids’ roles within the tumor and its microenvironment. Beyond their biosynthesis role, they are also good energy sources that help in maintaining redox balance. Also, derivatives of amino acid contribute to immune responses and epigenetic regulation connected to metastasis and tumorigenesis.
Furthermore, in regards to the transaminases and transporters mediating amino acid synthesis and uptake, potential metabolic therapeutic liabilities. There is increasing progress in the metabolism of cancer that continues impacting oncology understanding. Over the decades engendered avenues and discoveries to therapy approaches have been discovered. Cancer metabolism has classically focused on carbon metabolism which includes tricarboxylic acids and glycolysis. However, new researches are shedding more light on amino acid’s roles in the metabolism of cancer. Other roles of amino acids include energetic regulation, redox balance, homeostatic maintenance, and biosynthetic support. This diverse amino acid function is part of the reason why it is quite popular in cancer-based research.
Amino Cancer Treatment and Prevention
Controlled amino acid therapy is a developed protocol for cancer patients. It includes strict nutritional supplements and dietary guidelines that are centered on controlling carbohydrate and amino acid intake. John A.P cancer research institute developed this protocol and claims to be based on wide clinical research, however, there is no published research or results using animal or human models for this amino acid therapy. What they offer are published observational studies or case studies but the studies protocol is not reported and the institute’s website is not functioning.
This photo component includes this selective restriction on supplements and amino acids like antioxidants and vitamin D. They have been separately studied using animal models and also in vitro. The major component here is the selective restrictive amino acid therapy which follows the hypothesis that mutation from cancer cells prevents the synthesis of some other amino acids which are needed for the continued survival of cell and protein synthesis.
Depriving the cells of exogenous amino acid sources makes them unable to carry out protein synthesis thus they will not be able to survive. Therefore the proposal that temporarily deprivation of these amino acids might cause the cancer cell deaths without leading to muscle proteolysis or affecting the normal cells.
However this hypothesis is yet to be tested fully in vivo, it is only based on studies observation of how deprivation of amino acids and general protein restriction both in vivo and in vitro. There are quite several other studies that show impressive output and maybe the way forward.
A study found that a significant reduction of general protein intake may inhibit the proliferation of cells in prostate cells that are resistant to castration and also starvation of amino acids in culture conditions mixed with getting cause cytotoxicity in EGFR cancer cell expression.
Reduced intake of protein also inhibits the growth of tumors but does not affect the weight of the body in a mouse model xenograft of breast cancer in humans. Some research also says selective deprivation of amino acid glycine and serine or tyrosine and phenylalanine can inhibit the growth of tumors in the animal models.
A lot of internet sites will say amino acid therapy undergoes clinical trials. However, these trials only evaluate ate deprivation of amino acids and are small-scaled. A 1960 study evaluated five patients who had metastatic melanoma and took a diet with restricted tyrosine and phenylalanine. The growth of the tumor was measured using calipers and X-rays to monitor lung metastases. Four patients experienced reduced tumor growth correlating with decreased levels of tyrosine and serum phenylalanine. The authors came up with the conclusion that although the controlled diet seemed to inhibit the growth of the tumor, patients may find it difficult to follow.
Pharmacological inhibiting specific metabolism of amino acid is also used in evaluating the hypothesis of using selective deprivation of amino acid to inhibit the growth of the tumor. Multiple drugs are being developed and currently are in phase 2 preclinical studies that target certain enzymatic steps involved in the metabolism of specific amino acids like glycine, leucine, glutamine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, arginine, and serine.
Different clinical trials, for example, are evaluating deiminase arginine which reduces arginine. Patients in phase 2 clinical trial patients who have advanced carcinoma of hepatocellular however experienced no significant difference in progression or overall survival compared to placebo. Other ongoing trials evaluate arginine deiminase for other types of cancer and combine other therapies.
In vivo and in vitro data suggests selective deprivation of amino acid may possess some anticancer properties; these agents inhibit specific metabolism of amino acid and they are continually being developed for anticancer therapy. A combined amino acid therapy protocol is not evaluated formally in clinical or preclinical studies.
Although some of these components have shown efficacy the data are still insufficient to suggest this amino cancer treatment and prevention therapy as an effective cancer treatment. No ultimate result or theory can be developed from what we have so far, as there is still more research to be conducted. But while we wait other approaches have been used in combating cancer and they are proving to be quite effective. At least a good number of people have recovered from cancer, and several others are responding to treatment or management.